For the past few months I have been working on a project that should end up in a management system that would support the 10th principle of the Global Compact.
While we in many ways have embraced the potential that these changes have brought with them, there are also worries that the face of corruption and fraud will change in much the same way. Just as new possibilities for wealth creation have emerged, so have new avenues and possibilities for Bribery, Fraud and corruption.
Some efforts have been made to combat the increase in corrupt behaviour, which in themselves are good and live up to some of the very principles that we think highly off. But at the same time, there seems to be no decline in world corruption or fraud for that matter.
The 10th principle of the UN Global Compact concerns the subject of Corruption and how organisation deals with the subject. According to UNs own communication, this has been and continues to be the most difficult area to work with. While most signatories of the GC have identified the area as being a major obstacle in their work, very little evidence has been found that companies are effectively combating corruption. For instance only 20% of signatories had an anti-corruption policy that related to their own supply chain.
The OECD Convention on Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business has created a framework from which business, governments and NGO can work together to combat corruption. And while the charter does subscribe a way for business to understand and articulate how corruption affects their operation it does not give any concrete advice on how anti-corruption work should look like in the field.
The aim of the Copenhagen Charter is to remedy this discrepancy and create a real, tangible and systematic approach to anti-corruption work in business and organisation in general. Based on these guidelines I have been part of the process of formulating and creating a working platform from which such work could be undertaken. The process have led us to a point were we now have 13 core principles and a auditing-system from an were BFC effort can be undertaken.
The principles are:
- Ensure that a Code of Ethics or Code of Conduct is implemented which is inline with international institutional norms and which promote high ethical standards.
Codes of ethics form the backbone of the organisations work against corrupt and fraudulent behaviour. It formulates the practical guidelines that all employees need to follow within the organisation in order to comply with the guidelines set by the board and executive management. Both corruption and fraud can be difficult to identify and employees in the field need to know exactly what the corporate policy is for accepted behaviour for receiving or giving gifts or how to bid for contracts. A Code of Conduct helps the employee take decisions and identify situations, which can lead to issues of concern.
- Organisations implement a sufficient level of financial and operative independence. Furthermore the organisation needs to implement internal and external audit coverage with the aim of uncovering corruption and possible fraud.
Auditors should be able to operate freely within the organisation. Even though most audits do not uncover corruption or fraud, is the independence of auditors send a powerful message to would-be whistle-blowers that an independent and unbiased system of control exists.
- Develop a system that encourages both employees and managers to communicate and report, to the relevant independent body all irregularities. Implement a procedure that ensures that these reports will be taken serious by the receiver, who has the power and authority to do investigate the claim.
- Implement an effective communicative system with local and regional authorities that ensure that the organisation’s work is transparent and auditable by both governmental and organisational auditors.
Working together with local and national governmental agencies will enable one to create a system which is transparent and auditable not only by the organisations own auditors but also from third parties. Third parties will have other ideas and insights into local conditions, which is hard to get insight into as an international corporation.
- Organisations need to work with government officials and organisations in order to create guidelines and systems for disclosure of governance practices and transactions between the two parties.
It is the obligation of both the company and the governmental agencies that it works with to disclose as much information about their transactions as necessary to prevent dishonest behaviour. However, a system is needed in order to efficiently and effectively spread information to the relevant stakeholders’, in this case governmental agencies, who have a interest.
- Designated and qualified staffs within the organisation have to play an active role in evaluating the efficiency and effectiveness of financial and internal control systems on a regular basis. On a regular basis they need to follow up on recommendations related to Corruption and Fraud Detection.
Like any other monitoring system, a systematic approach to anti-corruption and fraud monitoring and detection, needs some form of efficient mechanism for updates. The ways in which these types of acts are committed is constantly changing and is being developed mainly because corruption and fraud is a crime in most countries and perpetrators have to develop their techniques in order not to be prosecuted.
- The organisation needs to focus its control and audit strategies more on areas and operations prone to fraud and corruption by developing effective high-risk indicators, which can be effectively measured and managed.
What gets measured gets managed is a old saying within management, but one needs to know what to measure before an effective system can be put into place. Every company and industry is different and subject to their own dynamics and business culture. Within fraud and corruption there are no universal system that can just be implemented.
In order to effectively combat devious behaviour one must incorporate the dynamics of the business if one is to be successful. It is therefore essential that any system is based on local and industry knowledge and that people with the appropriate competencies are involved in the formulation of the systems indicators.
- Use multiple communications means to distribute your audit reports and invite stakeholders to participate in the investigation and establishment of a transparent organisation.
One of the most effective anti-corruption and fraud systems that can be implemented is to invite everybody to look inside, so that a critical look can be taken on the audit process. An auditor who thinks he knows everything knows nothing and by inviting stakeholders to participate in the continued investigation, one can create a basis of continued evaluation and transparency in the organisation.
- Communicate in a language that stakeholders of the organisation understands
If you communicate in a way, which alienates your audience, you will never be able to reduce corruption in your organisation. One might argue that using technical language will be more accurate and the from a legal point of view it would be more correct but the fact is that if you want people to read and understand what you are trying to say, then the reporting needs to be understandable.
- Use a network approach to combating corruption and fraud.
White-collar crime is a cross border discipline and as with the rise of globalisation, there is a need for business to learn, share and exchange knowledge from other parts of the world. No organisation is an island and if the business is divided on the fight on corruption and fraud it will ultimately loose the battle. Using a network approach and gartering resources from all levels of the organisation to be the eyes and ears of the organisation enables a much more effective intelligence on what is going on. While the information gathered might not directly lead to disclosure of crime, it highlights areas where there could be parts of the system which are not transparent and therefore can be subject to covering up wrong doing.
- Ensure that systems for the effective exchange and proliferation of knowledge are ensured both inside and outside the organisation.
Like the network approach can be used to gather information, it can also be a effective way to communicate with all parts of the organisation. In the information age, organisations need to have a reliable system for communicating with key stakeholders in order to combat rumours and getting a voice in a otherwise overcrowded media scene. If a company is branded as being corrupt or subject to large-scale fraud, it can cost its ability to conduct business and if it needs to establish channels of communication after the event, it will often be too late.
- Ensure that the systems for evaluation and incentives for management are established which support anti-corruption and fraud efforts in order to motivate employee ethical behaviour.
One of the major issues within corporate incentive plans is that they have often led to or initiated corrupt behaviour because of their design. The way in which companies compensate their managers and executives, have to be designed in a way that reduces the possibility of corrupt or fraudulent behaviour from occurring. This can example is through improved transparency in the incentive governance structure or third part validation of performance indicators. In high-risk regions, a managerial and specialist rotation program can also be in place in order to reduce the chance that top executives becomes too involved in the local business culture.
- Ensure that the organisation proactively functions as an example to be followed on fraud and corruption through international committees and working groups.
The ability to be innovative and more efficient is not only limited to other areas of business but also just as much within the field of auditing and governance. As knowledge within the organisation about fraud and corruption is increased, so is the ability to find new ways and systems for efficient governance in these areas. Working cross-culturally and tapping into these streams of knowledge allows an organisation as a whole to progress and innovate new ways to manage these areas. A committee function allows for effective management and the development of best practice techniques that eventually can find its way into the Code of Ethics or as part of the audit process system.
You can download TheCharter here.
- Identifying the fraudster (sriportfolio.wordpress.com)
- Hunger-striking Indian activist fights corruption (ctv.ca)
- Anna Hazare’s anti-corruption campaign sparks Gandhi cap revival (telegraph.co.uk)
- As anti-corruption fast continues, some question effectiveness (cnn.com)
- Anti-corruption crusade ‘ll be thorough – TUGAR, IATT (vanguardngr.com)
- India anti-corruption campaigners offer talks (91live.wordpress.com)