For the past five decades we have seen a tremendous development within the CSR movement from a few hippies in the sixties shouting curses at Dow Chemicals to businesses build on the idea of sustainability such as the Body shop and Starbucks. This blog is about what I think will happen in the next few years. The list is far from complete but gives an overview of some of the trends that will shape CSR in the coming years.
Codes of conducts as a “license to operate”. Code of conducts was, a few years ago, seen as a source of competitive advantage, and to some businesses a method to organise its philanthropic efforts. Today they are seen as something that most international businesses have as part of their normal business approach and more a given than an extra feature. Even companies like A.P.Møller-Maersk that until recently did almost nothing within sustainability is now implementing Codes of Conduct and have become member of the Global Compact.
Moving from a fragmented approach to CSR companies now work strategically with philanthropy and stakeholder engagement/management. As described by Porter and Kramer there are real advantages to be gained by working strategically and long-term with the company’ philanthropic activities (Porter & Kramer, 2002). And companies are using philanthropy to gain access to students and other important resources that they will need for their future growth. Apple computers have successfully engaged with university students as part of their strategy, which has moved the company from being marginalised in the market to be directly comparable with Microsoft.
The further evolution of sustainable and social risk management into real tools for business. Where companies engaged with stakeholders because they represented a business risk they would in the future also be part of business development. Globalization have meant that business have expanded its scope and reach significantly. Fuelled by waves of liberation in developing and emerging markets have initiated a significant increase in contact with countries and regions that can be categorized as difficult to do business in. The increased sphere of contact and influence have spread to every coroner of the world and is to a large extend fuelled by the prospect of high returns, first mover advantages and market shares (Haufler, 1997, Mehmet, 1999, Banfield et al., 2003, Gouldbourne, 2003,
Jamali & Mirshak, 2010). According to the World Bank some 1,5 billion people are affected by organised violence or conflicts (World Bank, 2012), this number constitute roughly one fifth of the total population of the world making it one of the world’s biggest social issues. Conflicts are present in all parts of the world and have a direct or indirect impact on the lives of everybody on the planet either through social ties or as part of our professional lives. For people who are directly affected it is an ever-present threat that invades all activities and decision making processes, for the societies involved it puts social lives and development in a state of suspended animation. To a large extend the issues that business needs to confront are outside what can be considered the norm within traditional risk management strategies (RMS) because the issues are socially embedded and complex (Holzman et al, 2003). As seen in the case with Starbucks NGO and companies can work together on areas of common interest and create new products and services (Austin & Reavis, 2004).
Social responsible investments or SRI will become more and more influential on driving investment decisions and thereby the choices of management. It is not argued that investment companies will become more social conscious but customers like institutional investors will become more and more concerned about how they are growing their portfolios (Hawken, 2004). This will not happen because they suddenly become aware that they have a significant social or environmental impact but that the customers of instructional investors are starting to wonder how their pensions are growing.
The raise of the corporate citizen. The idea of corporate citizenship was first seen a few decades ago (Crane & Matten, 2010). The idea of corporations as citizens with obligations and rights really saw its emergence with several big international finance scandals such as scandal around Enron and Arthur Anderson around the turn of the century. The idea of a corporate citizen comes from the notion that companies like people have an obligation to the community they are part of. This means that they are obliged to behave in accordance with ethical norms formulated by society. In many ways the corporate citizen come from the idea of engagement with salient stakeholders and acting in accordance with their expectations and wishes. While there are many companies that claim corporate citizenship a very have moved beyond mere rhetoric.
The inter-linkage between CSR and development studies. Will further develop and as we will see in this book gender will be one of the lessons learned from the field of development studies that will define corporate behaviour in the years to come. For decades development practitioners have known that economic growth, democratisation and security does not happened in a vacuum and that development a sustainable business climate is linked to society and governance structures. As companies increasingly becomes global even at very early stages of business lifecycle so does the issues that they have to confront. But as older companies have had time to cope with different cultures and business environments young entrepreneurs does not have the same privilege. In essence this means that they will have to experience a much steeper learning curve of they are going to survive on the global marketplace. The tools that have been refined through years of development studies will be an integrated part of creating a sustainable business platform for the future.
Since the 80’ties have seen large-scale privation of traditional state enterprises in areas like transportation, communication, healthcare, energy and infrastructure. Mostly influenced by neoliberal thinking in United Kingdom and United States were large-scale privatisation programs were implemented under Margret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan (Bhagwati, 2007:98, Harvey, 2005:57ff). As this happened private business also found its way into areas traditionally controlled by the state and as time have progressed more and more areas have seen either total takeover by private business as we have seen in telecommunication, part privatisation with majority state ownership as with railroads or private companies in direct competition with or as a alternative to state institutions as we have seen in Healthcare and Private security companies (Harvey, 2005, Dicken, 2003, Klein, 2000, Friedman, 2007).
The concept of CSR have found it’s way into the business world largely due to the weakening of the state and as a result of pressure by stakeholder groups to act as information have been more widely available from even the most remote part of the world. Word like ‘Sweatshop’ and ‘child labour’ would not have found its way into everyday language if it had not been for the increased transparency and persistence of stakeholders who have come forward within the last two decades.